WHO regulates; the Gates donate; Mosquitoes infect
Retrieved for Ed Porpoises by Pat Darnell
Can you guess what is " ... transmitted from one human to another by the bite of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. ...?"
In humans, parasites called sporozoites travel to the liver, where they mature and release another form, merozoites. These enter the bloodstream and infect red blood cells. [SOURCE]
A majority of symptoms are caused by massive release of merozoites into the bloodstream ... anemia result[s] from destruction of red blood cells, and problems caused by large amounts of free hemoglobin released into circulation after red blood cells rupture.Most people living in areas where malaria is common have acquired some immunity to malaria disease. Symptoms are High fevers, shaking chills, flu-like symptoms, and anemia.
[Malaria] is a major health problem in much of tropics and subtropics. CDC estimates that there are 300-500 million cases of malaria each year, and more than 1 million people die. It presents a major disease hazard for travelers to warm climates.
Visitors will not have immunity, and should take preventive medications. It is important to see your health care provider well before your trip, because treatment may begin 2 weeks before travel to prone to malaria areas, and continue for a month after you leave the areas. The types of anti-malarial medications prescribed will depend on the area you visit.
According to the CDC, travelers to South America, Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Asia, and the South Pacific should take one of the following drugs: mefloquine, doxycycline, choroquine, hydroxychoroquine, or Malarone.
Falciparum malaria is becoming increasingly resistant to anti-malarial medications.
Persons are urged to " ... Call your health care provider if you develop fever and headache after visiting the tropics. ..."
-- MEANWHILE --
The Gates Foundation has poured about $1.2 billion into malaria research since 2000. In the late 1990s, as little as $84 million a year was spent - largely by the U.S. military and health institutes, along with European governments and foundations. Drug makers had largely abandoned the field. China was developing a drug, artemisinin, that is now the cornerstone of treatment. [SOURCE]
-- AND --
The WHO, World Health Organization, is a United Nations agency with a $4 billion budget. It gives advice on policies, evaluates treatments - especially for poor countries - maintains a network of laboratories and sends teams to fight outbreaks of diseases, like avian flu or Ebola. It finances little research; for diseases of the poor, the Gates Foundation is the biggest donor in the world.
-- FUN FACTS --
[Source: Atlas Editions; Civil War Cards] Surgeons from both sides of the Civil War called malaria "ague","shakes", or "intermittent fever", the illness accounted for 20 percent of all sickness during the war. A typical case of malaria started with shivers down the spine, then fluctuating fevers for days. According to clinical records, doctors used a variety of treatments for malaria, but whiskey and quinine were standard treatment.
Some Yankee patients were given so much quinine that their teeth became loose and they were not able to eat.
When drugs became scarce in the South, doctors substituted tonics made from whiskey mixed with barks of dogwood, tulip and willow trees.
During the Civil War people believed malaria was caused by poisonous vapors emanating from ponds and swamps. While many men noted in their diaries swarms of mosquitoes that attacked during warmer months, and ensuing sickness that enveloped the camp, they never put the two together.